Food production in Mumias, Kenya has been declining over the years and so has food security. The decline in food production resulting in food shortages particularly among sugarcane farmers has affected their welfare, socioeconomic conditions, and health. Despite the renewed Kenyan government efforts to revitalize the Agriculture sector, the annual crop and food situation reports indicate that the region experiences food scarcity during certain months in the year. A descriptive survey was carried out on a randomly selected sample of 354 participants in Lubinu, Lusheya, and Makunga locations. Coping strategies identified include: a reduced number of meals consumed in a day, skipping food consumption for an entire day, borrowing food from a friend or a relative, reducing the size of meals, adults in the household not consuming food to allow children to have it, swapping consumption to less preferred or cheaper foods, selling charcoal or firewood to get food, and sending some of their household members to eat in neighbors’ homes. Food insecurity results in chronic malnutrition due to a continuously inadequate diet. This in turn leads to reduced physical capacity, lowered productivity, stunted growth, and inhibited learning. High food prices have also contributed to increased levels of food deprivation.
In this article, we explore the relationship between dietary composition, on-farm energy use, and CO2 emissions. Then, we estimate the cost of these emissions for the US diet relative to a Japanese, Greek, French, or Finnish diet. To carry out the analysis, we use four main data inputs: the proportions of per-capita caloric intake from plant-based and animal-based products for each diet, the products’ energy efficiencies, CO2 emissions per calorie, and total calories. We consider two scenarios: one in which dietary composition varies and the second in which both composition and calories vary with the respective levels in each diet. Our findings suggest that a shift to the Greek diet reduces CO2 emissions by 5.5 percent when daily caloric intake stays at the US level. This result suggests that the types of animal products being consumed matter, not just the amount, since the Greek diet has a higher proportion of animal-based products than the Japanese diet. When US daily caloric intake varies, the Japanese diet is the least polluting and reduces CO2 emissions by 29.2 percent due to the relatively fewer calories consumed in the Japanese diet. Alternatively, the French and the Finnish diets have a higher share of animal-based products and produce more CO2 emissions in both dietary scenarios. The social cost of the CO2 emissions associated with producing the current US diet ranges from $4.51 to $90.27 per capita, or 0.48 percent to 9.53 percent of farm cash receipts. Switching to either the Greek or the Japanese diet would result in lower costs in both of the scenarios we consider whereas the French and Finnish diets increase the social cost of CO2 emissions.
The history of theatre is a very good point of view from which to understand the history of wine. The choice of using plays as the main source for this study derives from factual data: In the Modern Age the theatre was one of the major places of “socialization,” where customs and traditions of the time emerged. This central role is even more amplified during the sixteenth century when the so-called “commercial theater” was born, which was followed not only by the royal court but also by a paying public. If oenological quotes found in plays are more rich and detailed than in the past, it means that a particular type of wine had a specific meaning in the quote and this was well understood by the reader of the time. This study aims to investigate, through oenological quotes found in different plays, the evolution and the persistence of the taste of wine in Europe during the Modern Age, in order to find the most significant models of the oenological evolution and the reasons for the success of a kind of wine.