In this article, we explore the relationship between dietary composition, on-farm energy use, and CO2 emissions. Then, we estimate the cost of these emissions for the US diet relative to a Japanese, Greek, French, or Finnish diet. To carry out the analysis, we use four main data inputs: the proportions of per-capita caloric intake from plant-based and animal-based products for each diet, the products’ energy efficiencies, CO2 emissions per calorie, and total calories. We consider two scenarios: one in which dietary composition varies and the second in which both composition and calories vary with the respective levels in each diet. Our findings suggest that a shift to the Greek diet reduces CO2 emissions by 5.5 percent when daily caloric intake stays at the US level. This result suggests that the types of animal products being consumed matter, not just the amount, since the Greek diet has a higher proportion of animal-based products than the Japanese diet. When US daily caloric intake varies, the Japanese diet is the least polluting and reduces CO2 emissions by 29.2 percent due to the relatively fewer calories consumed in the Japanese diet. Alternatively, the French and the Finnish diets have a higher share of animal-based products and produce more CO2 emissions in both dietary scenarios. The social cost of the CO2 emissions associated with producing the current US diet ranges from $4.51 to $90.27 per capita, or 0.48 percent to 9.53 percent of farm cash receipts. Switching to either the Greek or the Japanese diet would result in lower costs in both of the scenarios we consider whereas the French and Finnish diets increase the social cost of CO2 emissions.
The history of theatre is a very good point of view from which to understand the history of wine. The choice of using plays as the main source for this study derives from factual data: In the Modern Age the theatre was one of the major places of “socialization,” where customs and traditions of the time emerged. This central role is even more amplified during the sixteenth century when the so-called “commercial theater” was born, which was followed not only by the royal court but also by a paying public. If oenological quotes found in plays are more rich and detailed than in the past, it means that a particular type of wine had a specific meaning in the quote and this was well understood by the reader of the time. This study aims to investigate, through oenological quotes found in different plays, the evolution and the persistence of the taste of wine in Europe during the Modern Age, in order to find the most significant models of the oenological evolution and the reasons for the success of a kind of wine.
Nigeria is blessed with varieties of indigenous vegetables. Many in the wild are underutilized, becoming rare, and going to extinction while cultivated vegetables are becoming expensive. There is need to pay attention to wild vegetables. The proximate, mineral, and antinutritional compositions of “Launea taraxacifolia” and “Crassocephalum rubens” were determined using standard analytical methods. The results of proximate in percentages were: moisture (10.62±0.11; 9.73±0.14), crude protein (26.94±0.56; 21.07±0.24), ash (16.47±0.7; 21.17±0.34), crude fibre (21.68±0.63; 8.65±0.03), crude fat (14.85±0.14; 10.86±0.39) and carbohydrate by difference (9.44±0.61; 28.52±0.52). The antinutrient factors present in mg/g were: tannin (3.22±0.19; 3.07±0.14), oxalate (1.53±0.07; 1.35±0.07), and phytate (0.58±0.01; 1.24±0.07). Amino acid profiles of the leaf protein concentrates of the vegetables revealed the presence of essential and non-essential amino acids in appreciable quantities. Essential mineral elements, phenolic acids, and flavonoids were also detected. The vegetables have good nutritional and chemical potential for promoting good health.